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Alexander O. B. Whitlock Ricardo B. R. Azevedo Christina L. Burch. Population structure promotes the evolution of costly sex in artificial gene networks. Evolution. DOI:

Sonia Singhal, Shawn M. Gomez, and Christina L. Burch. Recombination drives the evolution of mutational robustness. Current Opinion in Systems Biology. DOI:


Shuntai Zhou, Williford, Sara E., McGivern, David R., Burch, Christina L., Hu, Fengyu, Benzine, Tiffany, Ingravallo, Paul, Asante-Appiah, Ernest, Howe, Anita Y. M., Swanstrom, Ronald, and Lemon, Stanley M. Evolutionary pathways to NS5A inhibitor resistance in genotype 1 hepatitis C virus. Antiviral Research. DOI:


Kayla M. Peck, Scobey, Trevor, Swanstrom, Jesica, Jensen, Kara L., Burch, Christina L., Baric, Ralph S., and Heise, Mark T.  Permissivity of Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Orthologs to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Is Governed by Glycosylation and Other Complex Determinants. Journal of Virology. DOI:

Lisa M. Bono, Leno B. Smith Jr, David W. Pfennig and Christina L. Burch.  The emergence of performance trade-offs during local adaptation: insights from experimental evolution. Molecular Ecology. DOI:


Alexander O. B. Whitlock, Kayla M. Peck, Ricardo B. R. Azevedo, Christina L. Burch.  An Evolving Genetic Architecture Interacts with Hill-Robertson Interference to Determine the Benefit of Sex. Genetics. DOI:


Lisa M. Bono, Catharine L. Gensel, David W. Pfennig, and Christina L. Burch. Evolutionary rescue and the coexistence of generalist and specialist competitors: an experimental test. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Science. DOI:

Kayla M. Peck, Christina L. Burch, Mark T. Heise, Ralph S. Baric. Coronavirus Host Range Epansion and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Emergence: Biochemical Mechanisms and Evolutionary Perspectives. Annual Reviews in Virology2, pgs.(2015). Link


Sarah B. Joseph, Kayla M. Peck, Christina L. Burch. Dominance Effects of Deleterious and Beneficial Mutations in a Single Gene of the RNA Virus ϕ6. PLoS ONE. 9(6): e97717 (2014). Link


ElizRNA Secondary Structureabeth Pollom, Kristen K. Dang, E. Lake Potter, Robert J. Gorelick, Christina L. Burch, Kevin M. Weeks, Ronald Swanstrom. Comparison of SIV and HIV-1 Genomic RNA Structures Reveals Impact of Sequence Evolution on Conserved and Non-Conserved Structural Motifs. PLoS Pathogens9, e1003294 (2013). Link

Mihee Lee, Peter Hall, Haipeng Shen, J. S. Marron, Jon Tolle, Christina Burch. Deconvolution estimation of mixture distributions with boundaries. Electron. J. Statist.7, 323–341 (2013). Link


On the CoverL. M. Bono, C. L. Gensel, D. W. Pfennig, C. L. Burch. Competition and the origins of novelty: experimental evolution of niche-width expansion in a virus. Biology Letters9, 20120616–20120616 (2012). Link




K. A. Porter, C. L. Burch, C. Poole, J. J. Juliano, S. R. Cole, S. R. Meshnick. Uncertain outcomes: adjusting for misclassification in antimalarial efficacy studies. Epidemiol. Infect.139, 544–551 (2010). Link

R. Lohaus, C. L. Burch, R. B. R. Azevedo. Genetic Architecture and the Evolution of Sex. Journal of Heredity101, S142–S157 (2010). Link


Mihee Lee, Haipeng Shen, Christina Burch, J. S. Marron. Direct deconvolution density estimation of a mixture distribution motivated by mutation effects distribution. Journal of Nonparametric Statistics22, 1–22 (2010). Link


Jennifer L. Knies, Joel G. Kingsolver, Christina L. Burch. Hotter Is Better and Broader: Thermal Sensitivity of Fitness in a Population of Bacteriophages. Am Nat173, 419–430 (2009). Link

W. L. Ince, P. R. Harrington, G. L. Schnell, M. Patel-Chhabra, C. L. Burch, P. Menezes, R. W. Price, J. J. Eron, R. I. Swanstrom. Major Coexisting Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 env Gene Subpopulations in the Peripheral Blood Are Produced by Cells with Similar Turnover Rates and Show Little Evidence of Genetic Compartmentalization. Journal of Virology83, 4068–4080 (2009). Link

Patrick R Harrington, Gretja Schnell, Scott L Letendre, Kimberly Ritola, Kevin Robertson, Colin Hall, Christina L Burch, Cassandra B Jabara, Dominic T Moore, Ronald J Ellis, Richard W Price, Ronald Swanstrom. Cross-sectional characterization of HIV-1 env compartmentalization in cerebrospinal fluid over the full disease course. AIDS23, 907–915 (2009). Link

Joseph M. Watts, Kristen K. Dang, Robert J. Gorelick, Christopher W. Leonard, Julian W. Bess Jr, Ronald Swanstrom, Christina L. Burch, Kevin M. Weeks. Architecture and secondary structure of an entire HIV-1 RNA genome. Nature460, 711–716 (2009). Link


J. L. Knies, K. K. Dang, T. J. Vision, N. G. Hoffman, R. Swanstrom, C. L. Burch. Compensatory Evolution in RNA Secondary Structures Increases Substitution Rate Variation among Sites. Molecular Biology and Evolution25, 1778–1787 (2008). Link

Darin R. Rokyta, Craig J. Beisel, Paul Joyce, Martin T. Ferris, Christina L. Burch, Holly A. Wichman. Beneficial Fitness Effects Are Not Exponential for Two Viruses. Journal of Molecular Evolution67, 368–376 (2008). Link

Sarah B. Joseph, Kathryn A. Hanley, Lin Chao, Christina L. Burch. Coinfection rates in ϕ6 bacteriophage are enhanced by virus-induced changes in host cells. Evolutionary Applications2, 24–31 (2008). Link

Jesse J Kwiek, Elizabeth S Russell, Kristen K Dang, Christina L Burch, Victor Mwapasa, Steven R Meshnick, Ronald Swanstrom. The molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 envelope diversity during HIV-1 subtype C vertical transmission in Malawian mother-infant pairs. AIDS22, 863–871 (2008). Link


Siobain Duffy, Christina L. Burch, Paul E. Turner. Evolution of host specificity drives reproductive isolation among RNA viruses. Evolution61, 2614–2622 (2007). Link

C. L. Burch, S. Guyader, D. Samarov, H. Shen. Experimental Estimate of the Abundance and Effects of Nearly Neutral Mutations in the RNA Virus ϕ6. Genetics176, 467–476 (2007). Link


Jennifer L. Knies, Rima Izem, Katie L. Supler, Joel G. Kingsolver, Christina L. Burch. The Genetic Basis of Thermal Reaction Norm Evolution in Lab and Natural Phage Populations. Plos Biol4, e201 (2006). Link

M. T. Ferris, P. Joyce, C. L. Burch. High Frequency of Mutations That Expand the Host Range of an RNA Virus. Genetics176, 1013–1022 (2006). Link

Ricardo B. R. Azevedo, Rolf Lohaus, Suraj Srinivasan, Kristen K. Dang, Christina L. Burch. Sexual reproduction selects for robustness and negative epistasis in artificial gene networks. Nature440, 87–90 (2006). Link


C. L. Burch. Epistasis and Its Relationship to Canalization in the RNA Virus ϕ6. Genetics167, 559–567 (2004). Link

C. L. Burch, P. E. Turner, K. A. Hanley. Patterns of epistasis in RNA viruses: a review of the evidence from vaccine design. Journal of Evolutionary Biology16, 1223–1235 (2003). Link

Christina L. Burch, Lin Chao. Evolvability of an RNA virus is determined by its mutational neighbourhood. Nature406, 625–628 (2000). Link

Lin Chao, Kathryn A. Hanley, Christina L. Burch, Cecilia Dahlberg, Paul E. Turner. Kin Selection and Parasite Evolution: Higher and Lower Virulence with Hard and Soft Selection. The Quarterly Review of Biology75, 261 (2000). Link

Burch, C. L. and L. Chao. 1999. Evolution by small steps and rugged landscapes in the RNA virus phi-6. Genetics. 151: 921-927. Link

Turner, P. E., C. L. Burch, K. A. Hanley, and L. Chao. 1999. Hybrid Frequencies confirm limit to coinfection in the RNA bacteriophage phi-6. Journal of Virology. 73: 2420-2424. Link

Burch, C. L., R. J. Danaher, and D. C. Stein. 1997. Antigenic variation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Production of multiple lipooligosaccharides. Journal of Bacteriology. 179: 982-986. Link

Danaher, R. J., J. C. Levin, D. Arking, C. L. Burch, R. Sandlin, and D. C. Stein. 1995. Genetic Basis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide Antigenic Variation. Journal of Bacteriology. 177: 7275-7279. Link